Poop – Evidence and Research

Resources Compiled by Pamela Holland, IBCLC
1) Bowel Habits of Normal Thai Infants
2) Jen Tow’s Handout
If you use this, please give credit to Jennifer Tow
3) Bowel Movements and Urination Patterns
Excerpt from: Discharge Procedures for Healthy Newborns, Robert C. Langan, M.D., St. Luke’s Family Medicine Residency Program, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Breastfed infants typically have more than three bowel movements per day and are rarely constipated. Watery stool may be normal; however, parents should contact their physician if the infant’s stools run out of the diaper.
Urination Patterns
Six or more wet diapers per day is normal for a breastfed infant after the mother’s milk has come in, as well as for bottle-fed infants
Bowel movements
More than three bowel movements per day is normal in breastfed infants.
Bottle-fed infants may have fewer bowel movements
4) Factors associated with defecation patterns in 0–24-month-old children
European Journal of Pediatrics; http://link.springer.com/journal/431; December 2008, Volume 167, Issue 12, pp 1357-1362, Date: 09 Feb 2008
To identify the normal defecation patterns and the factors affecting these patterns in the first two years of life, a questionnaire was given to the parents of 1,021 children who were followed in a well-child clinic. The time of first meconium passage, presence of colic symptoms, frequency, color, and consistency of stools were recorded. Mann Whitney U, Wilcoxon, chi-square, and correlation tests were used in the statistical analyses. The median number of defecations per day was six in the first month of life. This decreased to once in the second month and almost all cases remained so until the end of the 24th month. At the second month of age, 39.3% of infants passed stools less than once a day. This pattern of rare defecation was seen until the end of 6 months, when supplemental foods were started. Stool frequency was higher in exclusively breast-fed infants (p = 0.0001). Infants who had colic symptoms in the first 2 months had less frequent defecation during the first 2 years of life (p = 0.0001). In addition to confirming the previously observed defecation patterns of 0–2-year-old infants, this study provides the relationship between colic symptoms and stool frequency, and showed that the second month of life was unique in the sense that the frequency of stooling decreased to half of the previous month and 39.3% of these infants defecated less than once a day.
5) Frequency and weight of normal stools in infancy.
Arch Dis Child. 1979 Sep; 54(9): 719–720. PMCID: PMC1545825,  J N Lemoh and O G Brooke

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